For CA taxes see https://www.ftb.ca.gov/forms/2017/17_1032.pdf page 7 Section G. From the way I interpret it, not only will you not pay tax to CA on your VA income, you won't even file a CA tax return if I'm interpreting that correctly.
As for paying taxes to VA, I can't find anything definitive for your situation. I would highly suggest that you/your military spouse make an appointment with the base legal office (since it won't cost you a dime) to seek definitive information on that. The four most important works in your vocabulary during that appointment will be "show me in writing". I myself can't find anything definitive in writing, so you don't want to go on word alone. Otherwise, when it comes down to it you don't need any surprises from the VA department of taxation.